Problem: Butter Curdles During Mixing.
Cause: Ingredients too warm or cold.
Solution: Eggs must be room temp and added slowly.
Problem: Cake lacks Volume.
Problem: Crust burst or cracked
Cause: Oven too hot/ Too much flour or too little liquid
Solution: Adjust oven temp./ Adjust formula; Scale accurately.
Problem: Cake shrinks after baking.
Cause: Weak internal structure/ Too much sugar or fat for the batter to support cake/ Not fully cooked.
Solution: Adjust Formula
Problem: Cake is dense or heavy
Cause: Too little leavening/ Too much fat or liquid/ Oven too cool/ Improper mixing *The longer a cake is mixed after the flour is added, the more the gluten develops, making a denser cake*
Solution: Test for doneness before removing from oven/ Cream fat or eggs properly/ Adjust oven temp/ *When adding flour, mix it just until it's incorporated unless a recipe states different.*
Problem: Texture is course with an open grain/ Poor flavor
Cause: Over mixing/ Oven too cool/ Poor ingredients/ Unclean pan
Solution: Adjust oven temp./ Alter mixing method/ Check flavor and aroma of ingredients/ Don't grease pans with rancid fats.
Problem: Uneven shape
Cause: Butter not incorporated evenly/ Batter spread unevenly/ Oven rack not level/ Uneven oven temp.
Solution: Incorporate fats complete/ Spread batter evenly/ Adjust oven racks/ Adjust oven temp.
This troubleshoot was from the book On Baking by Labenski, Martel and Van Damme. The asterisks were my personal note. Again, I hope this was easy to understand and helped someone out.